Tag Archives: Medal of Honor

Maryland Campaign Medal of Honor Series: Leonidas Inscho, 12th Ohio Infantry

By Brad Gottfried

Born on February 20, 1840, in Chatham Ohio, Leonidas H. Inscho enlisted in Company E, 12th Ohio Infantry on June 16, 1861. He had risen to the rank of corporal by the time his regiment, part of Col. Eliakim Scammon’s brigade (Kanawha Division, IX Corps), marched to Fox’s Gap on the morning of September 14, 1862.

Inscho’s citation reads: “Alone and unaided and with his left hand disabled, captured a Confederate captain and four men.”

Inscho’s deeds are best described in his own words:

“. . . our regiment, with others, charged the Confederates, who were posted behind a stone wall on the side of the mountain. As we approached the enemy, a rifle-ball struck my gun, wounding my left hand. While stopped to examine my piece and my hand, the regiments made a flank movement to the left, leaving me alone near the wall. A Confederate captain was on the other side, and as he came near me, I caught him by the collar and told him to surrender. He refused, and pointed his revolver at my head, but I caught it by the barrel and turned it up just as he fired. I clung to the revolver and disarmed him, and grabbing him by the shoulders began to pull him over the wall. He struggled vigorously and struck me in the face several times, but I got him over the wall and knocked him down compelling him to surrender.

“I then turned my attention to some of his men, who were taking refuge behind a clump of trees. I pointed my revolver at them and demanded their surrender. Four of them dropped their guns and came over to the Union side of the wall, but a fifth man came up to me with his gun in his hand and swore he would not give up to a Yankee. He took aim at me as he spoke, and I dropped behind the wall just as he fired. He turned to run away and I at once rose from my position and emptied the contents of my revolver into him. I then ordered the captain and his four men to fall in, and marched them over to the colonel of my regiment [Carr B. White].”

Inscho’s 12th Ohio was up against the 23rd North Carolina of Brig. Gen. Samuel Garland’s brigade (Maj. Gen. D. H. Hill’s division) and the regiment did shift to the right to attack Confederates near the Wise house, as Inscho described.

Inscho would fight with his regiment until it was mustered out during the summer of 1864. He subsequently re-enlisted in the 23rd Ohio and rose to the rank of lieutenant. Inscho was wounded again at the battle of Third Winchester on September 19, 1864. A comrade noted how he, “never was sick a day during his whole term of service, and never missed a roll call, drill or guard duty.”

After mustering out of service on August 7, 1865, Inscho returned home to Ohio, married in 1870 and opened a grocery store. He would not receive his medal until January 31, 1894. He died on November 12, 1907.

Inscho slipped into obscurity until a local historian learned of his exploits. The mayor of Newark, Ohio subsequently proclaimed November 12, 1988 as “Leonidas H. Inscho Day” that included placing a bronze marker at his grave site.

Maryland Campaign Medal of Honor Series: Hillary Beyer, 90th Pennsylvania Infantry

By Jason Campbell

Hillary Beyer

Hillary Beyer was born in Norristown, Pennsylvania  in 1837. On May 18th, 1861 at the age of 23, he enlisted into Company A of the 19th Pennsylvania Regiment, a three-month unit. Three months later on  August 29th, 1861, the regiment’s term of service had expired and the men were mustered out. The mass majority of the men re-enlisted for a three-year term becoming the 90th Pennsylvania Regiment. Beyer re-enlisted along with his comrades and joined Company H of the newly formed 90th Pennsylvania.

At the Battle of Antietam the 90th Pennsylvania served in the Second Brigade, William Christian, Second Division, James Ricketts  of Joe Hooker’s First Corps. The First Corps was on the northern end of the battlefield approaching the infamous Cornfield and East Woods. The Second Brigade was originally led by Col William Christian, however; as Christian led his brigade closer to the East Woods, his mental state started to collaspe.  The tremdenous sounds of battle rolling across the fields of battle weakened Christian’s nerves.  Christian fled from the field leaving his brigade momentarily commaderless.  Col. Peter Lyle of the 90th, will be elevated to the command of the brigade, this in-turn will elevate Lt.Col. William Leech to command the 90th. After the battle, Lyle wrote of the involment of the 90th Pennsylvania:

“We again lay on our arms all night, and at daybreak the next morning (17th) we moved to the right, passed to the front through a corn-field, and took position on the left of Matthew’s battery, First Pennsylvania, which we were ordered to support. Here we were exposed to a severe fire of musketry and shell, we being immediately in rear of the skirmishers, who were engaging the enemy in the corn-field in the front. We were moved to the left behind a wood [the East Woods], and formed in close column. The shells falling around us, the battery was moved to the front, into the woods. Here we were subject to a raking fire of grape, canister, and shell. The battery fell back, and the regiment was deployed and moved to the front in line. We passed through the woods into a plowed field, where we engaged the enemy until our forces on the right and left gave way, when, having but about 100 men left, we fell back slowly and in good order, under cover of the woods, and then, being hard pressed by the enemy, we fell to the rear, finding that fresh troops were coming to our relief”.

Opposing the 90th were the remmants of Alexander Lawton’s Division and Evander Law’s Brigade from John Bell Hood’s Division, the latter had started to arrive on the field to replace Lawton. Law’s men threatened both flanks of the 90th Pennsylvania, in an exposed position, the regiment was forced with  no other choice but to fall back into the East Woods.

 At Antietam the 90th faced numerous challenges, from command changes to being under heavy fire, these men held their ground as long as they could.  Beyer, a Second Lieutentant in Company H  showee tremendous leadership skills. Though his regiment was retiring from the field, Beyer remained behind risking his life to save as many of his fallen men as possible. Beyer carried one man off of the field to safety. The 90th Pennsylvania Regiment lost a total of 98 officers and men at Antietam, a number that could have been higher if not for the actions of Beyer.

90th Pennsylvania Monument at Antietam

The monument to the 90th Pennsylvania Regiment at Antietam has the dubious distinction of being the only monument at Antietam that needed to be replaced. The original monument was made of three original Civil War muskets, both time and weather had compromised the monument which had lasted from the 1880’s to 1930. A new monument designed like the original was dedicated on September 17, 2004, the anniversary of the battle by the decendents of the regiment.

Beyer continued to serve throughtout the war, during General Grant’s Overland Campagin of 1864, Beyer was wounded during the Battle of the Wilderness. In November of the same year, when his term expired, Beyer was mustered out and he returned home.

Awarded the Medal of Honor on  October 30, 1896 


After his command had been forced to fall back, remained alone on the line of battle, caring for his wounded comrades and carrying one of them to a place of safety.

(Courtesy of Find-A-Grave)

After the war Beyer lived in Germantown, Pennsylvania where he worked as a manager at the Knickabocker Ice Company, a position he would hold for twenty-five years. Beyer died in Norristown only days shy of his seventieth birthday.

Maryland Campaign Medal of Honor Series: Jacob Orth, 28th Pennsylvania Infantry

By Gordon Dammann

Business commenced quite early for the 28th Pa Inf at Antietam.  It was 6 o’clock in the morning when we charged and drove the rebels back across the fields to an apple orchard where we encountered a very hard task.  No less that three rebel regts and a battery were our opponents.  To secure a victory over them meant hard fighting. It fell to my lot to encounter the color sgt. of the 7th South Carolina regt. A hand to hand fight ensued.  The final result of our short but sharp conflict was that the Carolinian was minus his flag and I had secured the trophy.  I also had a shot wound through my shoulder.  Six other strands of colors were taken by our Regt in this charge.

Jacob Orth
Jacob G. Orth

This description, though brief, is sufficiently clear to indicate a hard, stubborn, and desperate struggle between two men intent on the possession of the same object (flag) and of the consequences to themselves.

Cpl. Jacob Orth was part of the 28th Pennsylvania Infantry, which in turn was part of the 12th Corps under command of Brig. Gen. Joseph Mansfield (who was mortally wounded early in the morning of September 17).  General George Sears Greene commanded the division which included Tyndale’s brigade: 28th Pennsylvania, 7th Ohio, 66th Ohio, and 5th Ohio.  From 9:30 to 10 am they charged toward the woods surrounding the Dunker Church.  Defending the rebel position was the 7th South Carolina part of Kershaw’s command.  In the vicinity of the Dunker Church is where Cpl. Orth engaged in the hand to hand combat and captured the flag of the 7th South Carolina.  The Union regiments held their position for an hour but were pushed back to the East Woods.  Cpl. Orth was wounded in the shoulder and was probably taken to the Line Farm where he was treated.

After Antietam, Jacob George Orth was promoted to sergeant on December 8, 1862.  He was wounded at Chancellorsville on May 3, 1863 and was discharged on July 6, 1864 after 3 years of service.  He returned to West Philadelphia and died on September 11, 1907.  He is buried in West Laurel Cemetery in Bala-Cynwyd, Pennsylvania.

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